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Walters Ms. W.211, Book of Hours
Book of Hours
This Book of Hours, completed ca. 1440, is an example of the artistic production of the Masters of the Gold Scrolls, a group of illuminators primarily active in Bruges ca. 1410-50. The liturgical use combines Rome with a Rouen variant, particularly in the Hours of the Virgin. The book gives unusual emphasis to St. Jodocus, depicted first in the company of other saints and later as a single portrait at the head of his Suffrage (fols. 37v and 160r). SS. Christopher (fol. 161v) and Peter of Luxembourg (fol. 164v) are the only other saints illuminated in the Suffrages.
Ca. 1440 CE
Authority name: Masters of the Gold Scrolls
The primary language in this manuscript is Latin. The secondary language of this manuscript is French, Middle (ca.1400-1600).
Very thin and in some places transparent parchment, well selected and carefully prepared
Modern pencil foliation, upper right corners rectos
Formula: Quire 1: 8, with eighth folio cancelled (fols. 1-7); Quire 2: 6, with seventh folio added (fols. 8-14); Quire 3: 8 (fols. 15-22); Quire 4: 8, with first and eighth folios added, quire partially misbound (fols. 23-32); Quire 5: 8, with fifth folio added (fols. 33-41); Quire 6: 8, with third folio added (fols. 42-50); Quire 7: 8, with second and ninth folios added (fols. 51-60); Quires 8-9: 8 (fols. 61-76); Quire 10: 8, with sixth folio added (fols. 77-85); Quires 11-13: 8 (fols. 86-109); Quire 14: 8, with third folio added, first and second tipped in (fols. 110-121); Quire 15: 6, with first folio added, partially misbound (fols. 122-128); Quire 16: 6, with first folio tipped in, eighth folio added, misbound after fol. 128 (fols. 129-136); Quire 17: 8, with third, sixth, and ninth folios added (fols. 137-147); Quire 18: 8, with third and fifth folios added (fols. 148-157); Quire 19: 8, with fourth and seventh folios added (fols. 158-167); Quire 20: 8 (fols. 168-175); Quire 21: 8, with ninth folio added (fols. 176-185); Quire 22: 8 (fols. 186-193); Quire 23: 8, with second folio added (fols. 194-202); Quires 24-27: 8 (fols. 203-234)
Signatures: Mostly extant along spine edge in light brown ink
Comments: Some text is misbound, above collation is based on the current binding of the text
8.3 cm wide by 11.9 cm high
4.5 cm wide by 6.5 cm high
- Columns: 1
- Ruled lines: 17
- Ruled in rose ink; layout does not apply to calendar: 4.6 cm x 6.5 cm (written surface), 4 columns, 17 lines
- Title: Book of Hours
- Hand note: Written in textura
- Decoration note: Twenty-one inserted miniatures, all full-page with the exception of one; decorated illuminated initials on pages opposite of full-page miniatures, letters blue or rose-red, no pattern in alternation (6-7 lines); decorated illuminated initials, same design in three sizes: 4-line for Fifteen Joys of the Virgin, 3-line for introit of Mass on each weekday, 2-line at secondary text divisions; flourished initials alternately blue and gold, flourished in red and black respectively; borders around miniatures in four margins, on pages opposite full-page miniatures, similar in design but non-matching, on pages with 3-line initials, and in calendar; drolleries found on pages containing miniatures opposite full-page miniatures with emphasis on hybrids, quadrupeds, figures issuing from leaves, birds; few line fillers, mostly in litany: blue and gold parallels or gold diagonal edged in blue comb pattern; rubrics in red; text in brown ink
- Title: Calendar
- Rubric: Januarius
- Contents: Calendar full, graded in red and brown ink; saints of note include: Basilissa (Jan. 9), Paula (Jan. 26), Agatha (Feb. 5), Amandus (Feb. 6), Licinus (Feb. 13), Blavius (Feb. 15), Secundinus (Feb. 21), Milburga (Feb. 23), David (Mar. 3), Victorinus (Mar. 5), Phocas (Mar. 6), Domitian (Mar. 11), Valeric (Apr. 1), Hegesippus (Apr. 7), Amalberga (May 14), Brendan (May 17), Gudwal (June 6), Basil (June 14), Eligius (June 25), Benedict (July 11), Wulmar and Joseph (July 19), Walburga (Aug. 4), Piatus (Aug. 31), Aegydius (Sept. 1), Remigius and Bavo (Oct. 1), Dionysius (Oct. 9), Donatian (Oct. 14), Wulfram (Oct. 15), Ghislain (Oct. 24), Amandus (Oct. 26), Martin (Nov. 14), Clement (Nov. 23), Catherine (Nov. 25), Eligius (Dec. 1, occurs twice), Jodocus (Dec. 13), Nicasius (Dec. 14), Thirty Martyred Soldiers (Dec. 22)
- Title: Hours and masses for each day of the week
- Rubric: Hore dicende per ebdomadam et primo dominica die dicuntur hore sancte trinitatis
- Incipit: Domine labia mea
- Contents: Fols. 15r-65v: Hours and Masses for Each Day of the Week; fols. 15r-22r: Sunday Hours and Mass of the Trinity, headed "Hore dicende per ebdomadam & primo domenica die dicuntur hore sancte trinitatis."; fols. 23r-29v: Monday Hours and Mass of the Dead, headed "Die lune. Pro cunctis fidelibus. . ."; fols. 30r-36r: Tuesday Hours and Mass of the Holy Spirit, headed " Die martis hore sancti spiritus. . ."; fols. 37r-44r: Wednesday Hours and Mass of All Saints, headed "Die mercurii officium de omnibus sanctis. . ."; fols. 45r-51r: Thursday Hours and Mass of the Sacrament, headed "Die iouis de sacramento officium. . ."; fols. 52r-58r: Friday Hours and Mass of the Cross, headed "Die veneris officium sancte crucis. . ."; fols. 59r-65v: Saturday Hours and Mass of the Virgin, headed "Sabbato de beate virginie. . ."; fols. 65v-70r: Gospel Sequences, the first headed "Inicium sancti euuangelii secundum Iohannem. Gloria tibi domine.": John 1:1-14, Luke 1:26-38, Matthew 2:1-12, Mark 16:14-20; fols. 70r-80v: Two Gospel Sequences of the Passion according to John (18:1-19; 19:1-35, excerpts); fols. 80v-81r: Prayer to Christ, closing formulas
- Decoration note: Seven full-page miniatures on fols. 14v, 23v, 30v, 37v, 45v, 52v, and 59v
- Title: Devotional Sequence
- Rubric: Oratio ad sanctam veronicam
- Incipit: Salve sancta facies nostri redemptoris
- Contents: Fols. 83r-84v: Prayer to the Holy Face; fols. 84v-85v: Two sequences of Five Joys of the Virgin; fols. 85v-93v: Prayers concerning the Virgin; fols. 93v-94r Prayer of Indulgence; fols. 94v-95r: Seven Temporal Joys of the Virgin; fols. 95v-96v: Seven Spiritual Joys of the Virgin; fols. 97r-99r: Prayer on Seven Last Words of Our Lord; fols. 99r-102r: Prayer of St. Gregory; fols. 102r-104v: Communion Prayer; fols. 105r-107r: Two Prayers to the Virgin; fols. 107r-110r: Hymn to the Virgin and seven versicles; fols. 110r-111r: Prayer to Christ
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 82v
- Title: Hours of the Virgin
- Rubric: Incipiunt hore beate marie virginis. Ad matutinas
- Incipit: Domine labia mea
- Contents: Hours of the Virgin, for use of Rouen (some variants); misbound and repositioned in manuscript; four Suffrages (to Holy Spirit, SS. Nicholas, Catherine, Michael) at end of Lauds
- Decoration note: Full-page miniatures on fols. 112v, 122v, 139v, 143v, 147v, 151v, and 155v
- Title: Suffrages and Devotional Sequence
- Rubric: De sancto Iudoco antiphona
- Incipit: Confessor domini iudoce
- Contents: Saints with accompanying full-page miniatures: fol. 160r-v: St. Jodocus; fols. 161r-163v: St. Christopher; fols. 164r-168v: St. Peter of Luxembourg; fols. 165r-184v: Suffrages (seventeen), eleven to male saints (nine single, one pair), four to female saints, one each for forgiveness of sins and for peace; fols. 165r-168v: Peter of Luxembourg, Suffrage said in French heading to have by recited by him on knees before Crucifix, first of two antiphons rhyming: "Ceste orison soloit dire saint piere de lucenbourg a genous devant le Crucifix." fol. 169r: Trinity; fol. 169r: John the Baptist; fol. 169v: John the Evangelist; fol. 169v: Peter and Paul; fol. 170r: George; fol. 170v: Sebastian; fol. 171v: Nicholas; fol. 172r: Leonard; fol. 172r: Anthony; fol. 172v: Mary Magdalene; fol. 173r: Catherine; fol. 173v: Barbara; fol. 174r: Margaret; fol. 174r: Forgiveness of sins; fol. 174v: Peace; fols. 175r-176r: Two prayers, the first incorporating gold or blue flourished cross beside sacred words such as "crucem" and "Agios"; short second prayer cites St. Augustine as intercessor; fols. 176v-177r: Eight Verses of St. Bernard, closing prayer cites ".N." for name of suppliant; fols. 177v-181v: Fifteen Joys of the Virgin, in French; fols. 181v-184r: Seven Requests to Our Lord, in French, faithful daily recitation with appended Pater Noster and Ave Maria said in heading to protect male or female suppliant against dying unconfessed or unworthy: "Quiconques veult estre bien conseillies de la cose dont il a grant mestier si die chasun iour a coustumeemet ces orisons que chi apres trouveres escriptes & sacies certainement que cils ou celle qui de bons cuer les dira ia desconfis ne morra ne desconseillies ne sera ne villainement ne trespassera le iour que de boin cuer les dira & apres chascun orison dittes. Pater noster & Ave maria. Douls dieus douls peres sainte trinite un dieu & biaus sire dieux. . ."
- Decoration note: Three full-page miniatures on fols. 160r, 161v, and 164v
- Title: Seven Penitential Psalms, Litany, and Collects
- Rubric: Incipiunt septem psalmi penitenciales antiphona
- Incipit: Domine ne in furore
- Contents: Fols. 186r-195r: Seven Penitential Psalms; fols. 195r-201r: litany, includes Flemish and North French saints, majority group of females; John the Baptist singly as patriarch/prophet; fifteen disciples/innocents, Peter to Mark; fifteen martyrs, including Christopher, Quintinus, George, Lambert, Callistus; eighteen confessors/monks/hermits/priests/levites, namely eight pope saints followed by Nicholas, Benedict, Amandus, Bavo, Anthony, Francis, Dominic, Leonard, Eligius, Aegydius; twenty-two virgins/widows, including Mary Magdalene, Mary Egyptian, Ursula (first citation), Amalberga, Agatha, Gertrude, Walburga, Ursula (second citation), Anne, Clare, Elizabeth, Fides, Spes, Karitas; fols. 197v-200v: petitions, Psalm 69, eight paired responses and versicles; fols. 200v-201r: three collects
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 185v
- Title: Office of the Dead
- Rubric: Incipiunt vigilie mortuorum antiphona
- Incipit: Placebo domino
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 202v
- Title: St. Christopher with Christ Child
- Form: Full-page miniature
- Text: Suffrage to St. Christopher
- Title: St. Peter of Luxembourg with vision of the Crucifix
- Form: Full-page miniature
- Text: Suffrage to St. Peter of Luxembourg
The binding is not original.
Rebound in Paris by León Gruel ca. 1900; dark red velvet with rounded spine; gilded edges with leather tabs, two tabs end in a leather ball
Completed ca. 1440 in Bruges
León Gruel, Paris, ca. 1900; his bookplate inscribed with "N 4" in ink with a pencil notation below reading "No 11. Coll. L. G."
Henry Walters, Baltimore, possibly purchased from Gruel in 1905 as item 4 on a trimmed shipping list (WAM curatorial file)
Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest
Randall, Lilian M. C. Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. 3. Belgium, 1250-1530. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press in association with the Walters Art Gallery, 1997; pp. 147-157, cat. no. 234; figs. 451-453, pl. XXXc
Comblen-Stonkes, Micheline, and Philippe Lorentz. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Vol. 2. Brussels: Centre international d'étude de la peinture médiévale des bassins de l'Escaut et de la Meuse, 1995; p. 198.
Bousmanne, Bernard. Item à Guillaume Wyelant aussi enlumineur: Willem Vrelant, un aspect de l'enluminure dans les Pays-Bas méridionaux sous le mécénat des ducs de Bourgogne Philippe le Bon et Charles le Téméraire. Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1997; p. 176, 354 (n. 37).
Marrow, James H. “Book of Hours in Latin and French: Flanders (Bruges), ca. 1430: Miniatures by the Masters of the Gold Scrolls. NYPL MA 28.” In The Splendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at the New York Public Library. Edited by Jonathan J. G. Alexander, James H. Marrow, and Lucy Freeman Sandler, 283-286. New York: New York Public Library, 2006; p. 286 (ref. under cat. no. 63).
Vanwijnsberghe, Dominique. "Le cycle d'enfance des petites de la vierge dans les livres d'heures des pays-bas méridionaux." In Manuscripten en miniaturen: Studies aangeboden aan Anne S. Korteweg bij haar afscheid van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Bijdragen tot de Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Boekhandel. Nieuwe Reeks (8). Edited by Jos Biemans, Klaas van der Hoek, Kathryn M. Rudy, and Ed van der Vlist, 355-366. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2007; p. 365.
Dneffe, Dominique, Famke Peters, and Wim Fremout. Pre-Eyckian Panel Painting in the Low Countries, Vol. 1. Brussels: Brepols, 2009; pp. 141, 151 (nn. 98, 99), 351 (n. 139).
Principal cataloger: Randall, Lilian M.C.
Catalogers: Shartrand, Emily; Valle, Chiara
Editor: Herbert, Lynley
Copy editor: Wallace, Susan
Conservators: Owen, Linda; Quandt, Abigail
Contributors: Emery, Doug; Herbold, Rebekah; Noel, William; Shartrand, Emily; Tabritha, Ariel; Toth, Michael B.; Wiegand, Kimber
The Walters Art Museum
Licensed for use under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Access Rights, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode. It is requested that copies of any published articles based on the information in this data set be sent to the curator of manuscripts, The Walters Art Museum, 600 North Charles Street, Baltimore MD 21201.