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Walters Ms. W.428, Book of Hours
Book of Hours
Supplied name: Circle of the Master of the Prayerbooks
This pocket-sized Flemish Book of Hours was likely created in Bruges ca. 1500. It contains illuminations produced by the Ghent-Bruges school stylistically associated with the Master of the Prayerbooks, who was active at that time. The manuscript still retains the original binding signed by Ludovicus Bloc, a binder documented in Bruges ca. 1484-1529. The miniatures can be compared with those in W.176 in the Walters' collection, as well as with those in a manuscript also bound by Ludovicus Bloc in the Detroit Institute of Arts (Acc. no. 63.146). The overall image cycle is closely related to that of W.427, another Flemish Book of Hours preserved at the Walters Art Museum.
Ca. 1500 CE
Bruges (?), Flanders
The primary language in this manuscript is Latin. The secondary languages of this manuscript are Italian, Spanish; Castilian.
Light-weight calfskin, inserted illuminated leaves of heavier calfskin; well-prepared parchment with satiny finish on flesh and hair sides; flyleaves are modern parchment
Modern pencil foliation; fols. 1-18: upper right corners, rectos; fols. 19-222: lower right corners, rectos; flyleaves were originally labeled ABC and XYZ, but Roman numerals have been used in this catalog entry
Formula: Quire 1: 8, with first, second, and third folios lacking (fols. 1-5); Quire 2: 8 (fols. 6-13); Quire 3: 8, with first and fourth folios added (fols. 14-23); Quire 4: 8, with second and ninth folios added (fols. 24-33); Quire 5: 8 (fols. 34-41); Quire 6: 8, with ninth folio added (fols. 42-50); Quires 7-8: 8 (fols. 51-66); Quire 9: 8, with first folio added (fols. 67-75); Quire 10: 8, with sixth folio added (fols. 76-84); Quire 11: 8, with third and ninth folios added (fols. 85-94); Quire 12: 8, with fifth folio added (fols. 95-103); Quire 13: 8, with second folio added (fols. 104-112); Quire 14: 8, with second and ninth folios added (fols. 113-122); Quire 15: 8 (fols. 123-130); Quire 16: 10, with second folio added and tenth folio cancelled (fols. 131-140); Quire 17: 8 (fols. 141-148); Quire 18: 8, with seventh folio added (fols. 149-157); Quires 19-24: 8 (fols. 158-205); Quire 25: 6, with sixth folio added (fols. 206-212); Quire 26: 8, with second folio added (fols. 213-221); Quire 27: 2, with second folio cancelled (fol. 222)
6.8 cm wide by 9.6 cm high
3.6 cm wide by 5.2 cm high
- Columns: 1
- Ruled lines: 16
- Ruled in pink ink; layout does not apply to calendar: 3.4 cm x 5.0 cm (written surface), 3 columns, 17 lines.
- Title: Book of Hours
- Hand note: Gotica rotunda
- Decoration note: Seventeen full-page miniatures each with foliate margins on three sides and facing opening pages of text with matching foliate margins and large initials against pink, blue, and green grounds (5-6 lines); small miniatures in the Calendar and four other small miniatures throughout the manuscript; one historiated initial (6 lines) with foliate margins above and below the textblock; smaller initials in gold against rose grounds (1-2 lines) mark secondary text divisions; rubrics and major feast days in rose; text in black ink
- Title: Calendar
- Rubric: Ianuarius. xxx.
- Contents: Calendar half filled; the contents is composite, showing some correspondence with Bruges calendar
- Text note: Calendar graded in rose and dark brown; variant references from the Bruges calendar: Leander (Feb. 27), Adrian (Mar. 4), Cyprian (Mar. 8), Hilary (Mar. 16), Sabina (Mar. 31), Valerian (Apr. 14), Remigius (Oct. 1), All Souls (Nov. 2)
- Title: Suffrage to the Holy Face
- Rubric: De beate Veronice. Xristi.
- Incipit: Salve sancta facies
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 14v and large initial (5 lines) with decorated margins
- Title: Hours of the Cross
- Rubric: Incipiunt hore de sancte cruci [sic]
- Incipit: Domnie labia mea
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 17v and one large initial (5 lines), both with decorated margins
- Title: Hours of the Holy Spirit
- Rubric: Incipiunt hore de sancto spiritu
- Incipit: Domine labia mea
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 25v with foliate margins; large initial with decorated margins
- Title: Mass of the Virgin
- Rubric: Incipit missa beate marie
- Incipit: Salve sancta parens
- Contents: Fols. 32v-38r: Mass of the Virgin; fols. 38r-44v: Gospel sequences (fols. 38v-39v: John 1:1-14; fols. 40r-41r: Luke 1:26-38; fols. 41v-43v; Matthew 2:1-12; fols. 43v-44v: Mark 16:14-20)
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 32v with foliate margins; large initial with decorated margins; small miniatures with foliate margins fols. 38v, 40r, 41v, 43v
- Title: Hours of the Virgin
- Rubric: Incipiunt hore beate marie virginis secundum usum romane ecclesie
- Incipit: Domine labia mea
- Decoration note: Full-page miniatures with decorated margins fols. 45v, 67v, 81v, 87v, 99v, 105v, 114v; large decorated initials mark the beginning of each hour
- Title: Advent Office of the Virgin
- Rubric: Incipit offitium beate marie virginis quod dicitur per totum adventum. Ad vesperas.
- Incipit: Deus in adiutorium meum
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 121v and large initial both with foliate margins
- Title: Seven Penitential Psalms, Litany and Petitions
- Rubric: Incipiunt septem psalmi. Antiphona.
- Incipit: Ne reminiscaris
- Contents: Fols. 133r-144v: Seven Penitential Psalms; fols. 144v-147v: litany includes North French saints: Peter to Mark; sixteen martyrs, including Adrian, Dionysius, and Maurice; fols. 147v-154r: petitions, Psalm 69, nineteen paired versicles and responsories, ten collects
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 132v and large initial, both with decorated borders
- Title: Office of the Dead
- Rubric: Incipiunt vigilie mortuorum. Antiphona.
- Incipit: Placebo
- Decoration note: Full-page miniature fol. 155v and large initial, both with decorated margins
- Title: Devotional Sequence
- Rubric: De Domina nostra
- Incipit: Obsecro te
- Contents: Fols. 199r-202v: Obsecro te; fols. 203r-205v: O intemerata; fols. 206r-210r: Athanasian Creed
- Decoration note: Historiated initial fol. 199r
- Title: Two Prayers, added early
- Rubric: Oratio
- Incipit: O gloriosissima verace Virgine
- Contents: Fols. 211r; 215r-221v: prayer attributed to St. Augustine, five citations of "famulum tuum .N." for recitation of name of suppliant
- Decoration note: Full-page miniatures fols. 211v, 214v, and large decorated initials with decorated margins
- Title: Bathsheba at her bath, observed by King David
- Form: Full-page miniature
- Text: Penitential Psalms
The binding is original.
Bound by Ludovicus Bloc, documented in Bruges 1484-1529; wood boards covered by dark brown leather; sewn on four bands; blind-stamped panel on upper and lower covers with two vertical bands filled with spiraling vines forming four roundels inhabited by animals; framing fillets; bordering inscription signed Ludovicus Bloc; the inscription reads from the top and moving clockwise: "OB LAUDEM/XRISTI LIBRUM HUNC/RECTE LIGAVI/LUDOVICUS BLOC"; rebacked spine with four raised bands; modern endbands in green and pink silk; gilded edges gauffered in patterns of triple fillets; bindings signed by Ludovicus Bloc are preserved in the Detroit Institute of Arts, Acc. no. 63.146; Cambridge (England), St. John's College, Acc. no. MS I.39; The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliothek, Ms. 78 G 2; Princeton, University Library, Garrett 63; Syracuse University, George Arents Research Library, Ms. 7
Created in Bruges ca. 1500, based on style of miniatures and dates binder was active; possibly created for female suppliant referred to in devotional sequence on fols. 199r-210v; initials "AI" (?) in border on fol. 26r
Early owner inscribed date "1582" in plaque above cross on fol. 18r
Léon Gruel collection, Paris bookbinder and book dealer, by 1900; bookplate engraved "G&E" (Gruel and Engelmann) inscribed with number "405"
Henry Walters, Baltimore, purchased from Gruel after 1905
Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest
Gruel, León. Manuel historique et bibliographique de l'amateur de reliures. Vol. 1. Paris: Gruel and Engelmann, 1887; p. 56 (illus.).
Gruel, León. Collection León Gruel. Paris: Gruel and Engelmann, 1905; cat. no. 13.
De Ricci, Seymour, and W. J. Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935; p. 807, cat. no. 315.
Miner, Dorothy. The Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Exhibition Catalogue, Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949; cat. no. 211.
Miner, Dorothy. The History of Bookbinding, 525-1950 A.D. Exhibition Catalogue, Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1957; cat. no. 180.
Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book: Its History and Production. Revised edition. New York: Faber and Faber, 1967; p. 447, Pl. vii-32a.
Calkins, Robert G. A Medieval Treasury. Exhibition Catalogue for Cornell University. Ithaca: Office of University Publications of Cornell University, 1968; cat. no. 108.
Kren, Thomas. Renaissance Painting in Manuscripts: Treasures from the British Library. Exhibition Catalogue for J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1983; p. 62.
Manion, Margaret M. and Vera F. Vines. Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in Australian Collections. Melbourne: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1984; p. 137.
Wolf, Horst. Kostbarkeiten flämischer Buchmalerei. Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1985; Pls. 42, 45.
Owens, M. B. "Musical Subjects in the Illumination of Books of Hours from Fifteenth-Century France and Flanders." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1987; p. 472.
Shailor, Barbara A. Catalogue of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York, 1987; p. 61.
Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. Exhibition Catalogue. Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore. New York: George Braiziller, 1988; pp. 53-54, 218, cat. no. 104, fig. 24.
Brinkmann, Bodo. Die Flamische Buchmalerei Am Ende Des Burgunderreichs. Turnhout: Brepols, 1997; p. 378, Amm. 21.
Randall, Lilian M. C. Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. 3, Belgium, 1250-1530. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press in association with the Walters Art Gallery, 1997; pp. 474-480, cat. no. 289.
As-Vijvers, Margaret W. “More than Marginal Meaning? The interpretation of Ghent-Bruges Border Decoration.” Oud-Holland: tijdschrift voor Nederlandse kunstgeschiedenis 116 (2003): 3-33; p. 30.
Marrow, James H. “Book of Hours in Latin: Flanders (Bruges), Use of Rome, ca. 1500. NYPL MA 118.” In The Splendor of the Word: Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts at the New York Public Library. Edited by Jonathan J. G. Alexander, James H. Marrow, and Lucy Freeman Sandler, 292-295. New York: New York Public Library, 2005; p. 295 (ref. under cat. no. 65).
Principal cataloger: Randall, Lilian M.C.
Cataloger: Valle, Chiara
Editor: Herbert, Lynley
Copy editor: Wallace, Susan
Conservators: Owen, Linda; Quandt, Abigail
Contributors: Brown, Emily; Emery, Doug; Herbold, Rebekah; Noel, William; Schuele, Allyson; Shartrand, Emily; Tabritha, Ariel; Toth, Michael B.; Wiegand, Kimber
The Walters Art Museum
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