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Walters Ms. W.442.A-D, Stein Quadriptych

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Stein Quadriptych

Text title
Sequence of miniatures for private devotion (Stein Quadriptych)


The Stein Quadriptych was likely created in Bruges, and it has been attributed to Simon Bening and associates, ca. 1525-30. This collection of sixty-four miniatures is mounted in four panels, each in sets of sixteen miniatures per panel. The ensemble of miniatures was first cited in scholarly literature as the Stein Quadriptych because the earliest known owner of the collection was Charles Stein until 1886. The miniatures seem to have been dismantled at some point and then reassembled in these four panels. No texts have been found on the backs of these miniatures by the Walters Conservation Department. However, because it was normal practice for illuminated folios to be inserted into South Netherlandish prayer books without accompanying text on the back, the lack of textual evidence does not rule out the possibility that these miniatures were once part of a prayer book. Based on formal visual analysis and the use of color, however, these 64 miniatures appear to have been meant to be viewed as an ensemble. The recitation of prayers from a book or from memory may have been intended while the suppliant viewed the visual program.


Ca. 1525-30 CE




Authority name: Bening, Simon, 1483 or 1484-1561






No linguistic content; Not applicable

Support material


Miniatures on parchment, mounted on paper affixed to wooden board


Foliation: n/a

Sixty-four small miniatures mounted into four groups of sixteen; numbered here from left to right, top to bottom


Formula: n/a



0.0 cm wide by 0.0 cm high

  1. Consists of four panels, each containing sixteen miniatures; measurements of panels is 35.5 x 29 cm; measurements of miniatures is 6.8 x 5.2 cm

fols. PanelA1r - PanelD64r:
  1. Title: Sequence of miniatures for private devotion (Stein Quadriptych)


Panel A 1r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 1r
  2. Title: Joachim and St. Anne at Golden Gate and Annunciation to Joachim
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 2r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 2r
  2. Title: Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 3r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 3r
  2. Title: Marriage of the Virgin and Joseph
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 4r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 4r
  2. Title: Annunciation
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 5r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 5r
  2. Title: Visitation
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 6r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 6r
  2. Title: Navitity-Adoration
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 7r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 7r
  2. Title: Holy Family
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 8r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 8r
  2. Title: Annunciation to Shepherds
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 9r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 9r
  2. Title: Adoration of Shepherds, Virgin reading
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 10r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 10r
  2. Title: Circumcision
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 11r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 11r
  2. Title: Adoration of Magi
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 12r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 12r
  2. Title: Presentation in Temple
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 13r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 13r
  2. Title: Flight into Egypt
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 14r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 14r
  2. Title: Massacre of the Innocents
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 15r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 15r
  2. Title: Christ among the Doctors
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel A 16r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel A 16r
  2. Title: Virgin sewing gray-white fabric, youthful Christ reads gilt-edged green book
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 17r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 17r
  2. Title: Baptism of Christ
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 18r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 18r
  2. Title: Two Temptations of Christ: in the dessert and on top of rock
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 19r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 19r
  2. Title: Wedding at Cana
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 20r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 20r
  2. Title: Christ helps the demoniac
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 21r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 21r
  2. Title: Feast in the house of Simon the Pharisee (Simon the Leper) in Bethany, St. Mary Magdalene anoints Christ’s feet
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 22r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 22r
  2. Title: Raising of Lazarus
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 23r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 23r
  2. Title: Feast in house of Simon the Pharisee
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 24r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 24r
  2. Title: Last Supper, Christ gives Judas sop
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 25r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 25r
  2. Title: Agony in the Garden: Christ kneeling
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 26r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 26r
  2. Title: Agony in the Garden: Christ at back, lies face down on rock
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 27r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 27r
  2. Title: Agony in the Garden: Christ at center front, orant
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 28r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 28r
  2. Title: Christ addresses apostles
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 29r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 29r
  2. Title: Arrest of Christ
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 30r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 30r
  2. Title: Christ beset by four men outside house of the High Priest
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 31r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 31r
  2. Title: Christ before High Priest Annas
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel B 32r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel B 32r
  2. Title: Mocking of Christ
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 33r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 33r
  2. Title: Christ’s fall before judge
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 34r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 34r
  2. Title: Christ before Herod
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 35r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 35r
  2. Title: Flagellation
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 36r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 36r
  2. Title: Christ after Flagellation, hand untied; Christ fallen to ground before Flagellation column
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 37r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 37r
  2. Title: Christ after the Flagellation, tended by weeping St. Peter
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 38r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 38r
  2. Title: Christ in the river Cedron
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 39r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 39r
  2. Title: Christ crowned with Thorns
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 40r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 40r
  2. Title: Ecce homo
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 41r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 41r
  2. Title: Christ carrying Cross, weeping Veronica at right raises veiled hands to his face
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 42r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 42r
  2. Title: Christ falling under weight of Cross
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 43r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 43r
  2. Title: Christ carrying Cross, Virgin looks on
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 44r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 44r
  2. Title: Christ stripped of his robe
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 45r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 45r
  2. Title: Christ nailed to Cross
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 46r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 46r
  2. Title: Elevation of the Cross, crucified thieves at left and right, sorrowing Virgin seated on ground at back amid five nimbed fingers
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 47r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 47r
  2. Title: Crucifixion, sorrowful Virgin and weeping St. John Evangelist in foreground at left, St. Staphaton offers sponge at right
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel C 48r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel C 48r
  2. Title: Crucifixion, sorrowing Virgin left of Cross, St. Mary Magdalene at right embracing Cross, St. John Evangelist behind her, Longinus at left front pierces Christ’s side
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 49r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 49r
  2. Title: Deposition
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 50r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 50r
  2. Title: Lamentation
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 51r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 51r
  2. Title: Christ carried to sepulcher
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 52r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 52r
  2. Title: Entombment
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 53r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 53r
  2. Title: Virgin, St. John Evangelist, and St. Mary Magdalene before Christ’s tomb, weeping as they depart from Calvary
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 54r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 54r
  2. Title: Mater dolorosa
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 55r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 55r
  2. Title: 989,627,195
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 56r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 56r
  2. Title: Resurrection
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 57r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 57r
  2. Title: Noli me tangere
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 58r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 58r
  2. Title: Christ appearing to his mother, redeemed souls in background
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 59r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 59r
  2. Title: Doubting Thomas
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 60r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 60r
  2. Title: Ascension of Christ
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 61r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 61r
  2. Title: Pentecost
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 62r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 62r
  2. Title: Death of Virgin
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 63r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 63r
  2. Title: Assumption of the Virgin
  3. Form: Miniature

Panel D 64r:

  1. W.442.A-D, Panel D 64r
  2. Title: Last Judgment
  3. Form: Miniature



Mounted in groups of sixteen within four nineteenth-century gilt frames, which have themselves been encased in modern glass


Created in Bruges ca. 1525-30; attributed to Simon Bening and associates, possibly for Cardinal Albrecht of Bradenburg

Charles Stein, Paris, before 1886

Bourgeois, purchased from Stein sale, Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, May 10, 1886, no. 241

Ownership in Spain ca. 1888 suggested by photographs taken by Maison Laurent in Madrid

Henry Walters, Baltimore, before 1911; recorded in shipment of manuscripts and books received in Baltimore from New York via Adams Express Co.; receipt of April 13, 1911, and recorded in inventory thereafter by Gallery Superintendent James C. Anderson


Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters' bequest


Darcel, A. "La Collection Charles Stein." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 33 (1886: 132)

Exhibition and Sale Catalogues: Catalogue des objets d'art, de haute curiosité et d'ameublement composant l'importante collection de M. Ch. Stein, intr. C. Yriarte, Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, May 10, 1886: no. 241 (4 illus.: Panels A-D)

Destrée, J. "Recherches sur les enlumineurs flamands," Bulletin des Commissions Royales d'Art et d'Archéologie 36/37 (1897/88): 80-85

Kaemmerer, L and Ströhl, H. G. Ahnenreihen aus dem Stammbaum des portugiesischen Könighauses (Stuttgart, 1903), p. 20

Destrée, J. Les Heures Notre Dame dites de Hennessy (Brussels, 1923): pp. 19-23 (headed "Triptyque Stein"), pls. 1-4 (Panels A-D)

Winkler, F. Die Flämische Buchmalerei des XV. und XVI. Jahrhunderts: Künstler und Werke von den Brüdern van Eyck bis zu Simon Bening (Leipzig, 1925): pp. 139-140, Pl. 83, p. 184

De Ricci, Seymour, and William J. Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935; p. 809, cat. no. 324.

De Ricci, Seymour, and W. J. Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 2. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935; p. 2291, ref. to identification of W.442 as housed in Madrid, Royal Library (Winkler 1925)

Exhibition of Flemish Painting, Worcester Art Museum-Philadelphia Museum of Art (1939), no. 50, illus. (D50-51, D54-55)

The Life of Christ, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, 1948, no. 184, Figs. 15, 16, pp. 31-32 (Panels B-D)

Seaver, E. I. "How Word Became Image," Art News 47/1 (1948): 27, illus. C37-48, miscaptioned

D. Miner. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art (Baltimore, 1949): no. 212, Pl. LXXIX (Panel B)

Verdier, P. L'Art religieux: Formes de l'art 2 (Paris, 1956), color illus. n.o. (Panel D)

Breckenridge, "Et Prima vidit: The Iconography of the Appearance of Christ to His Mother." Art Bulletin 49 (1957): 9-32, esp. 28-30, fig. 17 (D58)

Bulletin of the Walters Art Gallery 12, no. 3 (1959): illus. p. I (A9, A7)

Wescher, P. "Beiträge zu Sanders und Simon Bening und Gerard Horenbout," Festschrift Friedrich Winkler (Berlin, 1959): pp. 126-135, esp. p. 133 and Fig. 10 (B25-26, B29-30)

Winkler, F. "Das Gebetbuch des Kardinals Albrechts von Brandenburg," Aachener Kunstblätter 23 (1961/62): p. 12

Diringer, D. The Illuminated Book: Its History and Production, rev. ed. (New York, 1967): p. 457, fig. VII-36 (Panel C)

Sittow, M."Le Couronnement de la Vierge," La Revue du Louvre 17, no. 6 (1967): 346, 349, Fig. 4 (Panel B)

Biermann, A. W. "Die Miniaturenhandschriften des Kardinals Albrecht von Brandenburg (1514-1545)," Aachener Kunstblätter 46, 1975: pp. 31, 268, Figs 12-15 (Panels A-D)

Ferguson, D.S., Schaff, S., and Vikan, G. under the direction of C. Nordenfalk, Medieval and Renaissance Miniatures from the National Gallery of Art, exh. cat., Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art (1975): p. 190, ref. under no. 49

Marrow, J. "From Sacred Metaphor to Descriptive Narrative: Transformations of Passion Iconography in the Late Middle Ages," Ph.D. diss., Columbia University (New York, 1975), pp. 177, 264

Rose, P. "The Iconography of the Raising of the Cross," Print Review 5: Tribute to Wolfgang Stechow (Spring 1976). ed. W.L. Strauss: 135

Kupfer-Tatasulo, M. "Innovation and Copy in the Stein Quadriptych of Simon Bening," Zfk 42 (1979): pp. 209-226

Kupfer-Tatasulo, M. "A Rosary Psalter Illuminated by Simon Bening," Quaerendo 9/3 (1979): pp. 274-298, Figs. 1-4 (Panels A-D)

Marrow, J. H. Passion Iconography in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance: A Study of the Transformation of Sacred Metaphor into Descriptive Narrative. Ars Neerlandica. Studies in the History of Art in the Low Countries I (Brussels, 1979): pp.79, 106, Figs 49, 75 (C33, C38)

von Euw, A. and Plotzek, J. M. Die Handschriften der Sammlung Ludwig (Cologne, 1979-85), vol. 2 (1982, by J. M. Plotzek): pp. 282, 284, 298, 300, 302, 306, 313

Büttner, F. O. Imitatio Pietatis: Motive der christlichen Ikonographie als Modelle zur Verähnlichung (Berlin, 1983): p. 119 (erroneous ref. to W.422)

Marrow, J. H. "Nikolaus Glockendon and Simon Bening: German Copies of the Evangelist Portraits in Bening's Stockholm Book of Hours," Nationalmuseum Bulletin 7/2 (1983): p. 101

Renaissance Painting in Manuscripts: Treasures from the British Library, ed. T. Kren, contr. J. Backhouse, M. Evans, T. Kren, and M. Orth, intr. D.H. Turner, exh. cat., Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum; New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, 1983-84 (New York, 1983): pp. 9-10, Fig. 5 (Panel B)

Ringbom, S. Icon to Narrative: The Rise of the Dramatic Close-up in Fifteenth-Century Devotional Painting. Acta Academiae Aboensis, ser. A: Humaniora, 31/2 (Äbo, 1965; 2nd ed., Doorspijk, 1983): pp. 205-209, Figs. 191-194 (Panels A-D)

Marrow, J. H. "Simon Bening in 1521: A Group of Dated Miniatures," in Liber Amicorum, 1984: p. 539

Smyers, M. "The Art of Illumination," in Flemish Art, 1985: p. 169, color illus. (A9-10, A13-14)

Testa, J. A. The Beatty Rosarium: A Manuscript with Miniatures by Simon Bening. Studies and Facsimiles of Netherlandish Illuminated Manuscripts I, ed. James Marrow (Doornspijk, 1986): pp. 42, 56, 69

Dogaer, M. G. Flemish Miniature Painting in the 15th and 16th Centuries (Amsterdam, 1987): pp. 171, 172, 177

Plotzek, J. M. Andachtsbücher des Mittelalters aus Privatbesitz, exh. cat., Cologne, Schnütgen Museum, 1987: p. 232

Kren, T. Simon Bening Flemish Calendar, Faksimile-Verlag (Lucerne, 1988): pp. 203, 218, Fig. 13 (Panel C)

Hindman, S.L. Four Miniatures by Simon Bening, exh. cat., London: Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox Ltd., in association with Bruce P. Ferrini Rare Books, Akron, Ohio, and Sam Fogg Rare Books and Manuscripts, London (1989): p. 17 (cf. Günther [1993], no. XXXIII)

Bulletin of the Walters Art Gallery 42, no. 5 (1989): [14], color illus. A7, A16

Wieck, Roger S. "Masters and Manuscripts or How to Distinguish One Illuminator from Another". 42 No.4. The Walters. 04/1989:2-4. figure (panel I), figure (panel IV); cover, p.4

Steenbock, F. "Largesse-- Münzen, Blüten, und Mannaregen: Eine Motivstudie," Festschrift für Peter Bloch, ed. H. Krohm, C. Theuerkauff (Mainz, 1990): p. 142

Brinkmann, B. and König, E. Simon Bening: Das Blumen-Stundenbuch (Lucerne, 1991) vol. 2: pp. 12, 28, 110, 115, 120, 234, 250, 333, 338, 342-343

Leesti, E. "A Depiction of Saint Sebald of Nuremberg by Simon Bening," Oud Holland 105/2 (1991): 125

Testa, J. A. "Fragments of a Spanish Prayerbook with Miniatures" Oud Holland 105/2 (1991): p. 111 (cf. London, Sotheby's June 23, 1992, lot 22)

Walker Mann, J. Medieval Art: The Saint Louis Art Museum Winter 1992 Bulletin, n. s. xx/3: 57-59

Arnould, A. and Massing, J.M., with contributions by P. Spufford and M. Blackburn, Splendours of Flanders, exh. cat., Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge, 1993): p. 86, ref. under no. 27

New York, Christie's, June 9, 1993, ref. under lot 6

Bruce Ferrini, Cat. 3 (1995), ref. under lots 54-55

Flemish Illuminated Manuscripts, 1475-1550, ed. and contr. M. Smeyers and J. Van der Stock, exh. cat., Saint Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum; Florence, Museo Bardini (Ghent, 1996; dist. H.N. Abrams, New York): p. 28

Smeyers, Maurits, and Van der Stock, Jan, eds.. Flemish Manuscripts: 1475-1550. Belgium: Ludion Press. 1996. p. 28

Randall, Lilian M. C. Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. 3, Belgium, 1250-1530. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press in association with the Walters Art Gallery, 1997; pp. 539-548, cat. no. 298.

Kren, Thomas and Scot McKendrick. Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe. Los Angeles : J. Paul Getty Museum. 2003.pp. 29, 43, 167, 412, 458-460, 472

Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art, Painting, Sculpture, The Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575. Second Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2005. pp. 172; 173, 8.17

Bartz, Gabriele; Konig, Eberhard; Wiedemann, Konrad. Bebetbuch des Herzogs Johann Albrecht von Mecklenburg. Munich: Wissen Media Verlag GmbH. 2006 no. 15; Plate VI

Wieck, Roger S. The Van Damme Hours Illuminated by Simon Bening. New York: The Pierpont Morgan Library, 2013. p. 68, fig. 4

Ransom, Lynn. The Stein Quadriptych : a Vita Christi by Simon Bening; Commentary to the Fine Art Facsimile Edition of the Stein Quadriptych in the Walters Museum Baltimore, W.442, Simbach/Inn : Müller & Schindler (2014)


Principal cataloger: Randall, Lilian M.C.

Cataloger: Herbold, Rebekah

Editor: Herbert, Lynley

Copy editor: Dibble, Charles

Conservator: Quandt, Abigail

Contributors: Emery, Doug; Herbert, Lynley; Noel, William; Tabritha, Ariel; Toth, Michael B.; Wiegand, Kimber


The Walters Art Museum


Licensed for use under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Access Rights, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode. It is requested that copies of any published articles based on the information in this data set be sent to the curator of manuscripts, The Walters Art Museum, 600 North Charles Street, Baltimore MD 21201.